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    Freeman, S. et al.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 12 May, 2014
    Volume 111, Issue 23, Pages 8410 - 8415, National Academy of Sciences, DOI# 10.1073/pnas.1319030111
    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. 


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